Professional & Graduate Education

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Carnegie has a long history in the study of professional education, beginning with The Flexner Report in 1910 and legal education in the 1930s. In this tradition, Carnegie investigated the preparation of several professions, and also examined the doctorate as the professional degree for college and university teachers.


Carnegie Initiative on the Doctorate


The CID was a five year action and research project that worked with doctoral-granting departments committed to restructuring their programs to better prepare graduates. Six disciplines were included: chemistry, education, English, history, mathematics and neuroscience.

Senior Staff

  • George Walker, Senior Scholar
  • Chris Golde, Senior Scholar
  • Laura Jones, Senior Scholar
  • Andrea Conklin Bueschel, Research Scholar


Major Publications

Formation of ScholarsThe Formation of Scholars: Rethinking Doctoral Education for the Twenty-First Century
George Walker, Chris M. Golde, Laura Jones, Andrea Conklin Bueschel, Pat Hutchings. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2008.




Envisioning the Future of Doctoral EducationEnvisioning the Future of Doctoral Education: Preparing Stewards of the Discipline – Carnegie Essays on the Doctorate
Chris Golde (Editor), George Walker (Editor). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2006.  





Carnegie Project on the Education Doctorate (CPED)


The Carnegie Project on the Education Doctorate (CPED) has engaged over 50 colleges and schools of education in a critical examination of the doctorate in education through dialog, experimentation, critical feedback and evaluation. The intent of the project is to collaboratively redesign the Ed.D. and to make it a stronger and more relevant degree for the advanced preparation of school practitioners and clinical faculty, academic leaders and professional staff for the nation’s schools and colleges and the learning organizations that support them. More about CPED »

Senior Staff

  • Lee S. Shulman, President
  • David Imig, Co-Director
  • Jill A. Perry, Co-Director


Online Resources



 Preparation for the Professions Program (PPP)


The PPP investigated the preparation for various professions offered by academic institutions, and compared across professions the approaches to teaching and learning that these institutions used to ensure the development of professional understanding, skills and integrity.

The program included studies of clergy, engineering, legal, medical and nursing education.

Senior Staff

  • William Sullivan, Senior Scholar
  • Matthew S. Rosin, Research Scholar


Major Publication

A New Agenda for Higher EducationA New Agenda for Higher Education: Shaping a Life of the Mind for Practice
William M. Sullivan, Matthew S. Rosin. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2008.  





Clergy Education Study

The Carnegie Foundation studied the academic preparation of Protestant, Catholic and Jewish clergy. Through intensive documentation of a cross-section of theological schools, the study sought to understand, broadly, how theological education fosters the development of a pastoral imagination that has the capacity to integrate professional knowledge and skills with moral integrity and religious commitment.

Senior Staff

  • Charles Foster, Senior Scholar
  • Lisa Dahill, Research Scholar
  • Larry Goleman, Research Consultant


Major Publication

Educating ClergyEducating Clergy: Teaching Practices and Pastoral Imagination
Charles R. Foster, Lisa Dahill, Larry Golemon, Barbara Wang Tolentino. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2005.





Engineering Education Study

Carnegie's multi-year study of undergraduate engineering education in the United States involved intensive fieldwork, including on-site observation of 11 electrical and mechanical engineering programs at a cross section of U.S. engineering schools. The study was funded by Carnegie and The Atlantic Philanthropies.

Senior Staff

  • Sheri Sheppard, Senior Scholar


Major publication

Educating EngineersEducating Engineers: Designing for the Future of the Field
Sheri D. Sheppard, Kelly Macatangay, Anne Colby, and William M. Sullivan. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2008.





Legal Education Study

Carnegie’s study of legal education involved a comprehensive look at teaching and learning in American and Canadian law schools today. Intensive field work was conducted at a cross-section of 16 law schools during the 1999-2000 academic year.

Senior Staff

  • Judith Wegner, Senior Scholar
  • William Sullivan, Senior Scholar


Major publication

Educating LawyersEducating Lawyers: Preparation for the Profession of Law
William M. Sullivan, Anne Colby, Judith Welch Wegner, Lloyd Bond, Lee S. Shulman. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2007.





Medical Education Study


In the medical education study, the team investigated both the common challenges of preparing physicians for complex practice and some of the distinctive curricula, pedagogies and assessment practices that have been developed to meet these challenges. The investigation focused on the professional development of physicians-in-training at three key points in their clinical education: 1) the early exposure to “doctoring”; 2) the third year clerkships; and 3) the residency. At each level, three forms of learning were examined: learning the knowledge to think like a physician, learning skills to perform skillfully, and learning professionalism to act responsibly. Outcomes of the study include examples of innovative curricular structures, promising pedagogies and thoughtful approaches to assessment, all of which support the professional development of learners; a critique of inadequate educational practices; and a series of recommendations for strengthening clinical education.

Senior Staff

  • Molly Cooke, Senior Scholar
  • David Irby, Senior Scholar


Major Publication

Educating Physicians coverEducating Physicians: A Call for Reform of Medical School and Residency
Molly Cooke, David M. Irby and Bridget C. O'Brien. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2010.  





Nursing Education Study


In its study of nursing education, the Foundation sought to understand the demands of learning to be a nurse and the most effective strategies for teaching nursing. As part of Carnegie’s Preparation for the Professions Program (PPP), this study took a comparative perspective to the issues of teaching, learning, assessment, and curriculum in nursing education.

The PPP has identified three dimensions of or apprenticeships for professional education. In nursing education these are high-end apprenticeships and include the following:

  • Intellectual training to learn the academic knowledge base and the capacity to think in ways important to the profession.
  • A skill-based apprenticeship of practice, including clinical judgment.
  • An apprenticeship to the ethical standards, ethical comportment, social roles, and responsibilities of the profession, through which the novice is introduced to the meaning of an integrated practice of all dimensions of the profession, grounded in the profession’s fundamental purposes.


Senior Staff

  • Patricia Benner, Senior Scholar
  • Molly Sutphen, Research Scholar


Major Publication

Educating Nurses coverEducating Nurses: A Call for Radical Transformation
Patricia Benner, Molly Sutphen, Victoria Leonard and Lisa Day. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2009.